Following the assassination of Julius Ceasar, subsequent Roman emperors spearheaded the construction of many technological feats. These feats allowed Rome to expand its empire and improve the quality of life for all Romans. The Aqueducts were most responsible for the latter in that they made available a much needed commodity ensuring that Romans had a consistent supply of water for their daily use.
The Aqueducts typically consisted of a series of tunnels and masonry structures which brought fresh water to the many Roman cities and towns from a water source. Great skill was needed to ensure a regular grade, so that the water would flow smoothly from its source without the flow damaging the walls of the channel.
This informative video provides an interesting historical account of the construction.