With the growing population, the need for Houses, Schools, Hospitals and many more are increasing. Thus, the Land has to be divided into more shares so that each get a fair share. This is what Land Surveying is all about.
Land Surveying is the second oldest profession in the World. A Land Survey includes:
- Measurement of the boundaries.
- Creating Land Maps.
- Developing a legal description of the property lines
What’s the need of Land Survey?
- Helps in establishing property boundaries. Thus, lesser the property line disputes among neighbors.
- To satisfy local building codes and regulations.
- Preparing maps of a property.
- Since it is very expensive to relocate a building, a land survey is necessary prior to construction or any other task.
- In case, a family wants to divide their land, claim for their share or transfer ownership to someone else in the family.
- For locating underground cables and utility lines.
- In case you are going to buy or sell your property, land survey is necessary to avoid several problems related to a land claim.
- One even needs to have a Land Survey for applying for insurance.
- Not just this, one need to have a Land Survey before any construction activity to get an idea of the condition of the Land and precautions required.
- Also, Land Survey is done to check if their land falls in Flood prone area.
Land Surveying can be a physical job, as one has to take the survey in all types of location and climate. Sometimes, one has to do climbing or simply walking to perform Land Surveying. But with the development of technology, the practices of Land Surveying has been improved to some extent.
With the coming of advancement in GPS and computerized system, not just the method and approaches used in this field is changed, but has become more efficient. More people are entering into this field due to its technical growth and its practical application.
Different types of Land Surveys are:
- A.L.T.A Survey(also called Extended Title Insurance Coverage Survey): Though not legally required, but important to balance the potential risk of the expenses of due diligence.
- Boundary Survey: This involves record and field research, measurements and computations to establish boundary lines.
- Topographic Survey: To locate topographic features including both natural and man-made like buildings, trees, streams, etc. This survey is used by engineers/architects or government agencies.
- Site Planning Survey: To prepare a site plan for designing improvements or developments. It’s a combination of boundary and topographic surveys.
- Subdivision Survey: Subdivision of an area into small parts showing documentation and survey data on a map.
- Control Survey: Precisely locating horizontal and vertical positions for using in boundary determination, mapping from aerial photographs, construction staking, etc.
- Court Exhibition Survey: This involves land survey to present a visual exhibit to be used in a courtroom. This includes analysis of various legal description and survey maps, field locating of record, existing monuments, and physical features and mapping of the information, so as to be used in a courtroom.
- Construction Survey: For construction purposes like that of roads, buildings, pipelines, etc.
Land Surveying is a vast field. Every land cannot be surveyed by the same type of land techniques. The type of Land Survey technique to be chosen depends on several factors. Some of the Land Surveying techniques are:
- Triangulation: This is the most common and efficient land survey technique as it minimizes the number of measurements needed.
- Trilateration: This technique uses electronic distance measuring equipment and is used in rough terrain.
- Traverse: This is commonly used for creating a preliminary survey for construction of new roads.
- Leveling: This is to determine a difference in elevation in specified area. This is done by measuring vertical distances on a graduated rod using leveling instrument.
- Radiation: This is most commonly used in conjunction with a plane table, and with other land survey techniques like Traverse and Triangulation.
Land Surveying has a major role in our society and will continue to play a significant role in future as well.
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